Definition of an XML positional flat file - definition

I'm reading a documentation which refers to flat positional XML files.
What is a positional flat file in general ? What does it mean for XML ?


Is there a way to store annotation in a different file?

I am trying with PDF annotation. I am wondering if it is possible to store annotation in a different file. Say, I have a.pdf, and I added some annotation and store it in b?
Yes of course. The PDF standard defines two file formats to store annotations in a standard, PDF ISO, compliant way.
The first is FDF (Forms Data Format) which is technically a PDF file, but with no pages, just annotations. This is a binary format.
The second, is XFDF, which is a XML subset of a FDF file. This format is useful since it is standard XML, and can be handled/parsed/edited by any standard XML library. For example, you could store XFDF directly in a SQL database (as a string).
PDFTron PDFNet can import/export both of these formats, on mobile/desktop/server/web, with bindings in C++/Java/C#/VB/Python/Ruby/PHP/Objective-C/Swift.

Audio format stored as ascii

Are there any audio formats that are stored in a plain text file? For me it is easier to understand how they are stored and how they are read, rather than reading documentation on binary formats.
No, there is not. You can however easily, using for example a Python interpreter, print out any binary file as numbers.
Just use a hex editor! Much of the relevant information is written in the file header in a human-readable form. Especially with WAV, AIFF or SD2 files.

Conversion from PDF to TIFF file using XSLT

Is it possible to convert PDF to TIFF file using XSLT? Can someone point out some artcile or code i can refer regarding the image conversion using xslt.
No, it is not possible using just XSLT. XSLT is for transforming XML to other textual structures (usually XML, HTML, or plain text). Using XSL-FO, you can output a PDF from XML data - but that is a one way process as far as XSL-FO is concerned. Apache FOP does support outputting to TIFF instead of PDF, but again this is a one way process.
Assuming you could get a PDF -> XML conversion working (a quick google suggests such libraries exist, but it's unclear what they'd actually provide), it would be possible to use XSLT to transform that XML into something Apache FOP could render into a TIFF file, but at that point you'd really be better off investigating a direct PDF to TIFF conversion library (perhaps with an OCR library).
Possible? Maybe (but likely not). The real question is why do you even want to try to create a TIFF file from a PDF file using XSLT?
You do not need XSLT.
You want a raster image processor like Ghostscript (or many others). It can convert PDF (and Postscript) to other image formats like TIFF.
The only way to do that is to call a conversion service, e.g. or to create another service externally to the DataPower box.
There might be some Node.js modules that could do it running in GatewayScript (GWS) (if you are on firmware 7+) but I believe they are all dependent on external binaries to function and that won't work in GWS.

PDF to Source conversion

Is there a way to find the source from which any PDF has been built ? The reason being if it has been built from an XML then i want to know whether i can get the XML back from the PDF and parse the XML ?
Is there a way to find the source from which any PDF has been built ?
No, there is no way to do that. PDF is a presentation format, not a data storage format, and in general, PDF lacks structure of the data it presents. You may not even have words or phrases inside a PDF file. A PDF could be considered (in an utterly-over-simplified way) a sequence of instructions like:
-Draw character 'a' in coordinates 10, 30
-Move the pen to the point 40,40
-Draw a line from the current point to the point 50,50

DICOM dataset folder to .dcm file

I have a folder filled with DICOM structures. It starts with a DICOMDIR and goes on from there.
I want to encapsulate this as a single .dcm file for easy sharing and uploading. Does anyone know how to do this? Tools that utilize pydicom, dcm4chee2 toolkit, or DCMTK are preferable since I already have these things installed and functional.
Thanks in advance. : )
Unfortunately DICOM is structured in such a way that this is more than likely not possible. First, as you may know, the DICOMDIR is a DICOM Directory file and is supposed to be in the root directory of DICOM Media such as a DICOM CD or DVD. The DICOMDIR contains references to all the other files contained on the media. A typical DICOM viewer/reader would look at the DICOMDIR to find the location and content of the other files on the media, display the contents for a user, and then load/view the appropriate files selected by the user.
The DICOM information model itself is hierarchical. The levels of the model are the Patient, Study, Series, and Image/Instance level. IE, a Patient has 1..N studies, a Study has 1..N Series, and a Series has 1..N images/instances. A DICOMDIR file reconstructs this hierarchy for all of the instances contained on the piece of media. The DICOM files themselves reside at the Instance level.
So, the main reason why you cannot combine the files into a single dcm file is that your directory of files may have references to images from multiple patients/studies/series, which cannot be encoded in DICOM in a single file.
The only way you could potentially combine the files into a single file would be if all of the images/files referenced by the DICOMDIR were contained in a single series. There are several DICOM SOP Classes (Service Object Pair Classes) that allow multi-frame images. If the type of images referenced supported multi-frame data and were in a single series, you could combine the images together into a single file. More than likely, however, this is not the case.
As a final FYI, the files contained on DICOM media are not allowed to have ".dcm" extensions on them.
DICOM is a binary format and can have a variety of encodings (Litte and Big Endian, ...). dcmdump and dump2dcm can only used to convert the binary file to a more human-readable format and back.
It looks like this program may be able to do what you ask.
It has an "Scan DICOMDIR" feature, and the site says you can combine multiple slices into single multislice files.
Since you mention you have a DICOMDIR, why not generate a media on disk ? This is perfectly defined in DICOM standard, simply follow "General Purpose CD-R Interchange (STD-GEN-CD)" for example.